List of figures

1 Number of natural disasters reported 1900 – 2012 Source: EM-DAT 2014;
2 Deviation from average summer temperature in metropolitan France 1900 – 2011 (average summer temperature calculated for the period 1981- 2010) Source: Météo-France 2010;
3 Heat waves in France (1947- 2013) The surface of spheres reflects the intensity of heat wave Source: Météo-France 2013;
4 Evolution of the observed minimum and maximum temperatures Source: Artelia, according to data available on the site for infoclimat.fr Bonneuil-en-France station – Le Bourget, 2014,  as cited in Artelia, RCT, Plaine Commune 2014;
5 Evolution of the observed minimum and maximum temperatures. Source:  Regional Plan for Climate, Météo-France, according to data from the station Paris-Montsouris, 2010, as cited in Artelia, RCT, PLaine Commune 2014;
6 Evolution of the observed annual number of very hot days: maximum temperature above 30 ° C. Source: Artelia, RCT, PLaine Commune 2014, according to data available on the website for infoclimat.fr Bonneuil-en-France station – Le Bourget, 2014;
7 Evolution of the observed annual number of days without thawing: maximum temperature at or below 0 ° C. Source: Artelia,RCT, Plaine Commune 2014, according to data available on the site for infoclimat.fr Bonneuil-en-France station – Le Bourget, 2014;
8 Mean surface temperature change. Source: IPCC 2007 Physical Science Basis;
9 Evolution of average annual temperatures for three IPCC scenarios by 2080  Source: IdF 2010;
10 Death rate (absolute) per 1000 in France 1960- 2012: evident pic of mortality in 2003.Source: adapted from World Bank, University of Sherbruck, 2014
11 Multidimentional vulnerability. Source: Field et al., 2014
12 Conceptualisation of vulnerability. Source: Wolf and McGregor, 2013
13 Plaine Commune in Île-de-France region. Source : Plaine Commune 2014
14 Plaine Commune in Seine-Saint-Denis department. Source: Plaine Commune 2014
15 The nine towns of Plaine Commune. Source: Plaine Commune 2014
16 Land use in Plaine Commune. Source: Plaine Commune 2014
17 Les Tartres: site occupies a strategic position on the axis Roissy- Charles de Gaulle / Le Bourget, the heart of the territory of Plaine Commune and Grand Paris project. This vast area of about forty acres, very weakly urbanized been a key development project to rebalance the intercommunal territory. The current plan is to partially restrain urbanization in order to keep agricultural land. Source: Plaine Commune* 2014
18 Employment of Plaine Commune by sector. Source: INSEE 2010
19 Clos-Saint-Lazare in Stains. Source: blog FranceTVinfo, 2014
20 Scenarios of population changes in Plaine Commune. Source: based on Lutz et al. 2014
21 Evolution of the age parameter between 2009 (top) and 2040 (bottom) in Seine-Saint-Denis (right) and Ile-de-France (left). Source: INSEE 2010, Omphale model, medium  scenario, as cited in Artelia, RCT, Plaine Commune 2014.
22 Distribution of general practitioners on the territory of Plaine Commune. Source: CPAM, 2013, as cited in Artelia, RCT, Plaine Commune (2014)
23 Construction of Cité de 4000, La Courneuve. Source: E-Cours de Paris 1
24 Renovated apartment building in Cité des 4000, La Courneuve, photo by the author
25 Haveli, India. Time lag in heat penetration in the building Source: Roaf et al 2009
26 School building in Épinay-sur-Seine. West-facing façade with no sun protection is exposed to overheating Source: photo by the author
27 Private house in Épinay-sur-Seine. West-facing façade is well masked by trees from direct sunlight Source: photo by the  author
28 2003 Heat wave: nocturnal heat island measured in Paris, average of 15 consecutive nights: the difference of temperature between city center and rural areas up to 7˚C due to UHI.  Source: Masson, V., Pigeon, G., Lemonsu, A., Marchadier, C. CNRM, Météo-France 2014
29 The frequency and intensity of heat waves is more pronounced in urban areas (gray) and suburban (blue) than in rural areas (green) to 2080. Source: Summary of results EPICEA project (CSTB, la Ville de Paris et Météo-France, 2012)
30 Land use map in Plaine Commune Source: IAU ÎdF 2008
31 Map of greenspace in Plaine Commune. Source: Plaine Commune CDT, 2014
32 Installation of thermal sensors in Saint-Denis. Thermal sensors are protected from direct sunlight with and insulation cover and installed 2 meters above ground level on street furniture and trees. Source: photo by the author
33 Park Georges Valbon. Source: Google Maps, 2014
34 a) Fountains, Place René Clair, Epinay-sur-Seine; b) landscape design, favoring stormwater infiltration, Quartier des 4000 Nord, La Courneuve; c) shaded area near Hôpital Casanova, Saint-Denis. Photos by the author
35  Plan for development of green space in Plaine Commune Source: Plaine Commune CDT 2014
36 Coldplay fans waiting for the concert near Stade de France, Saint-Denis. Photo by Chris K., retrieved from: Coldplayer.fr 2012
37 Rails deformation near Corbeil in August 2003. Source: SNCF 2012

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